MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs, generally of 20-23 nt, that down-regulate target gene expression during development, differentiation, growth, and metabolism. In Populus, extensive studies of miRNAs involved in cold, heat, dehydration, salinity, and mechanical stresses have been performed; however, there are few reports profiling the miRNA expression patterns during pathogen stress. We obtained almost 38 million raw reads through Solexa sequencing of two libraries from Populus inoculated and uninoculated with canker disease pathogen. Sequence analyses identified 74 conserved miRNA sequences belonging to 37 miRNA families from 154 loci in the Populus genome and 27 novel miRNA sequences from 35 loci, including their complementary miRNA* strands. Intriguingly, the miRNA* of three conserved miRNAs were more abundant than their corresponding miRNAs. The overall expression levels of conserved miRNAs increased when subjected to pathogen stress, and expression levels of 33 miRNA sequences markedly changed. The expression trends determined by sequencing and by qRT-PCR were similar. Finally, nine target genes for three conserved miRNAs and 63 target genes for novel miRNAs were predicted using computational analysis, and their functions were annotated. Deep sequencing provides an opportunity to identify pathogen-regulated miRNAs in trees, which will help in understanding the regulatory mechanisms of plant defense responses during pathogen infection.